It has been accepted in the whole world that the resources of our world which has been getting smaller every passing day and the environment effects of the product and activities do not remain as local and regional but they become global. This consciousness has also brought along the need of controlling the environmental effects with the market forces rather than the legal applications.
For now on, to be able to exist in the global market is measured with the value and respect given to the human. Todays consumer demands being respected and that the environment where s/he lives and his/her world are given value in addition to the meeting of his/her expectations and needs at the highest level and questions this in the market.
These developments have revealed the truth that the enterprises need management systems that will ensure that they can keep their interactions with the environment under control and that they can continuously make better their environmental activities and success. The Environment which is one of the most important issues in the integration with the European Union and also the inspections that the Ministry of Environment and Forestry makes etc. cover the issues which are parallel to the requests of this standard.
The management system developed for the systematical decreasing of the losses that the enterprises have given or will give to the environment and for eliminating them if possible is called Environment Management System.
ISO 14000 Environment Management System is a management model aiming the decreasing of the natural resource usage and minimizing the losses given to the soil, water, air in its core and which is established on the basis of the risk analyses.
It is a series of standards published by the International Standards Organization and defining the determination of the environmental factors in every stage of the process of the product which has passed as starting from the raw material to becoming the final product and being presented to the customers and minimizing the loss given to the environment by taking these factors under control with the required inspections and precautions.
It is not a product standard, but it is a system standard and it deals with how it is produced rather than what is produced. It is based on monitoring of the environment performance and its continuous betterment. It stipulates to obey to the conditions defined by the related legislation and laws regarding the environment factors.
TS EN ISO 14000 Series Standards:
ISO 14001 Environment Management System-Characteristics and Users Manuel
ISO 14004 Environment Management - Environment Management Systems- General Guideline for Principles, Systems and Supporting Techniques
ISO 14020 Environment Labels and Declarations -General Principles
ISO 14031 Environment Management - Environment Performance Evaluation Guideline
ISO 14040 Environment Management Life Long Evaluation General Principles and Applications
ISO 19011 Guideline for the Quality and Environment Inspection
History of ISO 14000 Environment Management System:
The preparation of the ISO 14000 Environment Management System Standard is firstly based on decisions made in the world summit made in Rio in the month of June of the year of 1992 and the principles taking place in the Rio Agreement. Approximately after 1 year from the world summit made in Rio, in 1993, a technical committee which was composed of the representatives of approximately 50 different countries was established by ISO to prepare the international environment managements standards. As a result of the works of this committee, in the month of September of the year of 1996, the ISO 14001 Environment Management System was published and realized. Still the application of ISO 14000 standard is based on the principle of voluntarism and it is estimated that in the near future, with the enforcement of the community and international institutions and states, the standard will be turned into a compulsory application. The stages through which the environment management system has passed can be summarized as follows:
In 1973, the European Union countries published the I. Action plan (To put the precautions protecting the environment into the implementation)
In 1992, BS 7750 Standard
In 1992, Declaration
In 1993, ISO/TC 207. Environmental Management Technical Committee was established for developing the 14000 family Standards by ISO
1994 TS 9719 standard (Environment Management Systems General Characteristics)
In 1996, ISO 14001 standard
April 2005 ISO 14001 current version
ISO 14001 Environment Management System Standard Principles
Entering into obligation and Politics: The institution should assign the environment policy and should make engagement of commitment to the environment management system.
Planning: The institution should determine the environment dimensions of its activity, product and services and should select the important ones of them. It should determine aims and objectives for realizing their commitments and it should plan the activities that it will realize for achieving these aims and objectives.
Application and Operation: The institution should develop a support mechanism together with the ability and opportunities required for making an efficient application with the aim of realizing its environment policy and reaching its aims and objectives.
Control and Corrective Activity: The institution should measure, monitor and evaluate its environment activity and its success degree in this activity.
Reviewing and developing: The institution should review and continuously develop the environment management system with the aim of developing its general environment activity and its general success degree in this activity.
CONTINUOUS DEVELOPMENT: It is the continuous betterment of the institution environment management system to provide developments in the general environment activity of the institution in accordance with its environment policy.
ENVIRONMENT: It is medium in which an institution realizes its activities and which covers the air, water, soil, natural resources, flora and fauna and the relations between the humans and these.
ENVIRONMENT DIMENSION: They are the elements of the institutions activities, products or services which interact with the environment.
ENVIRONMENT EFFECT: It is all kinds of negative or positive changes that arise partially or fully due to the activity, product and services of the institution in the environment.
ENVIRONMENT POLICY: It is the declaration that the institution has made to explain its intention and principles related to the general environment activity and to constitute framework with its activity, environment, aim and objectives.
PREVENTION OF POLLUTION:It is applying to all kinds of operations and applications and using of material or product which can include putting in place again, exposing to another operation, making change in the operation, efficient usage of the control mechanisms and resources and material substitution with the aim of preventing, decreasing pollution or keeping it under control.
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT:Shortly, it is the development by meeting the current needs without hindering the future generations from meeting their own needs.
LIFE LONG EVALUATION: It is a series of procedures related to the collection and reviewing of the information related to the environment effects which can be directly attributed to the system and which arise during the life period of this system with the goods and services obtained from a certain material and energy in a goods and service system.
2. REFERRED STANDARDS
4. CONDITIONS AND MAIN ELEMENTS OF THE ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
4.1 GENERAL CONDITIONS
4.2 ENVIRONMENT POLICY
4.3.1 ENVIRONMENT DIMENSIONS
4.3.2 LEGAL AND OTHER CONDITIONS
4.3.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVES
4.3.4 ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT PROGRAM OR PROGRAMS
4.4 APPLICATION AND OPERATION
4.4.1 BODY (STRUCTURE) AND RESPONSIBILITY
4.4.2 TRAINING, CONSCIOUSNESS AND COMPETENCE
4.4.4 CERTIFICATION OPERATIONS RELATED TO THE ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
4.4.5 DOCUMENT CONTROL
4.4.6 OPERATION CONTROL
4.4.7 EMERGENCY SITUATION PREPARATION AND WORKS REQUIRED TO BE DONE IN THESE SITUATIONS
4.5 CONTROL AND CORRECTIVE ACTIVITY
4.5.1 MONITORING AND MEASUREMENT
4.5.2 NONCOMPLIANCE, CORRECTIVE PREVENTIVE ACTIVITY
4.5.4 ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM CONDITIONS INSPECTION
4.6 REVIEWING OF THE MANAGEMENT
4tharticle from the standard articles is the application article.
The Environment Management System is known with the ISO 14001 standard in the whole world and after the ISO 9000 Quality Management System Standard, its recognition and application in the international institutions have happened too rapidly.
The aim of the development of the ISO 14001 Environment Management System in the institutions;
· Increasing the harmony with the national and/or international legislations
· Increasing the environmental performance
· Market Strategies
· Providing advantage in the international competition
· Increasing the company reputation and market share
· Decreasing of the costs and increasing of the productivity with the development of the cost control
· Decreasing the events such as accidents etc. which result with the responsibility by being ready for the emergency situations (earthquake, fire, flood etc.) and accidents
· Keeping the pollution under the control and decreasing it by starting from the resource
· Providing input materials and energy saving
· Making easier the obtaining of the permission and authority certificates
· Ensuring the acceptance in the global market as ISO 14001 is a common language which is known and used by the whole world
· The effects of the company activities to the environment and environment risks can be determined and controlled and by this way, the elements negatively affecting the environment are decreased.
· The costs arising from the environment effects decrease.
· The harmony to the laws and legislation related to the environment is provided.
· The environment effects that can happen in the emergency situations are decreased or fully eliminated.
· That the legislations and regulations are followed can be shown with the documented environment management system and ISO 14001 Certificate to the legal institutions.
· By providing recognition in the national and international arena, this gains prestige to the institution.
· The environment consciousness increases in the workers with the help of the trainings given to the company personnel.
· Working in an institution which does not give harm to the environment motivates workers.
· The expectations of the consumer related to the environment are met and the chance of reaching to the conscious consumers and gaining them increases.
· The resources are used effectively (the energy, water, etc. saving is ensured).
· The wastes left to the environment decrease.
We call ENVIRONMENT POLLUTION to the deterioration of the material and energy cycles in the ecosystem and being negative affected of the alive and dead environment by the unnatural resources.
The environment pollution is the whole of physical and chemical events appearing in the environment in which we live and affecting the living life negatively.
It has appeared as a result of the environment problems, population increase, urbanization and industrialization.
The utilization of the natural resources in the environment by the human is an ordinary process. However, the nature has become unable to renew itself and unable to protect its balance as a result of the improper and bad usage of the resources and not giving importance to the environment in the name of the industrialization. As a result of the fact that the humans think of only themselves and today, the adequate resources and a clean environment cannot be transferred to the next generations.
Classification of the environment pollution
· Air Pollution
· Water Pollution
o Sea Pollution
o Lake Pollution
o River Pollution
o Underground waters Pollution
o Pollution of drinking water resources
· Noise Pollution
· Soil Pollution
· Destroying of the agricultural soils
· Soil Erosion
· Solid wastes Garbage
· Destroying of the Forest Natural Vegetation and Green Areas
· Acid rains
· Radioactive Pollution
· Irregular urbanization
· Visual Pollution